Glossary From Physical Education Framework for California Public Schools
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GLOSSARY

A

academic content knowledge: The knowledge of the physical education discipline; concepts and principles related to motor development, motor learning, biomechanics, exercise physiology, sport psychology, sport sociology, sport history, and sport philosophy. The content standards for all subjects, including physical education, are based on the disciplinary knowledge of the field. CF

academic learning time (ALT): A unit of time during which students are engaged in learning content at an appropriate level of difficulty and in such a way that they have a chance to be successful (Rink 1998; Siedentop 1991). CF

 accommodations: Adaptations that address the need of a student by removing the effects of the disability but not altering the performance outcome. CF

accumulated physical activity: The total number of minutes of physical activity performed during a 24-hour period of time. Includes minutes from short periods of activity performed during the day and the physical activity done in the “bouts” (longer periods of time). CF

accuracy: The National Standards define reasonable accuracy as 60 percent successful performance; accuracy is 80 percent or above. Scores in the range of 60 percent to 79 percent are considered reasonably accurate. NS

adapted physical education: A physical education program designed to meet the unique needs of an individual with a disability who is unable to fully participate in the general physical education program. CF

adventure/outdoor activities: Physical activities centered in natural settings. Examples include orienteering, backpacking, hiking, rope activities, canoeing, cycling, skating, and rock climbing. CF

aesthetic dimension: Refers to space, time, energy, and flow. CF

aesthetic: The understanding and appreciation of beauty in human movement. CF

aerobic activity: Exercise that can be performed for a long duration because the energy required can be provided by the burning of fuel, which normally occurs in muscle cells in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic activity may help control body weight, reduce the percentage of body fat, improve the circulatory function and respiratory functions, and reduce blood pressure. Examples include aerobic dance, cycling, jogging, power walking, in-line skating, step aerobics, kickboxing, and super circuit. CF

affective domain: The domain in which the focus is on personal—social development, attitudes, values, feelings, motivation, and emotions. In the revised Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2005), affective behaviors include receiving (willing to listen and hear), responding (willing to participate actively), valuing (willing to be involved, accept, and commit), organizing (willing to advocate and sympathize) and characterization (willing to change behavior, revise judgments and cooperate). NS

agility: A skill-related component of fitness that describes the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body. CF

alignment: Clear and direct relationship among the standards, curricula, instructional materials, instructional methods, and assessments. CF

anaerobic activity: Exercise of short duration that is performed at a more strenuous level, so increased respiration and heart rate cannot provide sufficient oxygen to the muscle cells. Examples of anaerobic activity include sprinting, weight training, curl-ups, gymnastics, and some team activities, such as softball and football. CF 

analytic rubric: An assessment and instructional tool that divides assignments or tasks into individual component parts with criterion behaviors defined for each part and across levels of the rubric. Each part is evaluated separately across levels, and learners receive feedback for each component part of the assignment or task. The assessment occurs on a continuum defined by the criterion behaviors unique to each component. NS

applying: Learners can demonstrate the critical elements of the motor skills or knowledge components of the grade-level outcomes in a variety of physical activity environments. NS

aquatics: Might include but not limited to swimming, diving, synchronized swimming and water polo. NS

assessment: The process of gathering evidence about a student’s level of achievement. CF

The sources for each of the definitions, terms and phrases are indicated at the end of each entry.  The following key indicates the primary resource used for each definition:

CF:  California Department of Education. (2009). Physical education framework for California public schools. Sacramento, CA: Author. 

NS:  SHAPE America. (2014) National standards & grade-level outcomes for K-12 physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.  

B

balance: A skill-related component of fitness that relates to the maintenance of equilibrium while stationary or moving. CF

base of support: The area of the base or foundation that supports the body. The base of support may include one or more body parts and the distance between them. The ability to stabilize the body is directly proportional to the area of the base of support. For example, if two feet are close together, the base of support is narrow and stability is limited. If the two feet are separated by some distance, the base of support is larger and provides more stability. CF

basic resistance principles: Resistance is the weight or force that is used to oppose a motion. Resistance training increases muscle strength by pitting the muscles against a weight, such as a dumbbell or barbell. The type of lift; intensity, volume, and variety of training; progressive overload; rest; and recovery constitute the basic principles of resistance training. CF

biomechanics: The study of human movement and how such movement is influenced by gravity, friction, and the laws of motion. It involves the analysis of force, including muscle force that produces movements and impact force that may cause injuries. It explains why motor skills are performed in explicit ways in order to improve efficiency and effectiveness. CF

body composition: The proportion of fat-free mass (e.g., muscle, bone, vital organs, and tissues) to fat mass in the body. CF 

body management: Basic skills focusing on the ability to control the body and body parts in actions such as those involving traveling, balancing, rolling, and supporting body weight. CF

body mass index (BMI): A formula used to assess body fat based on a ratio between height and weight. CF

body orientation: The direction that the body is facing. CF

C

cardiovascular endurance: A component of health-related fitness that describes the ability of the heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscles during exercise. CF

 checklist: An assessment and instructional tool that evaluates whether the individual performance criteria are present or absent. It consists of a list of criterion behaviors, and evaluators simply determine yes, the criterion behavior is present or no, the criterion behavior is not present. This type of assessment does not attempt to determine the quality of the response. NS

circle dance: A dance performed in a circle. CF

closed skill: Motor skills that are performed in an environment that is stable and predictable. CF

cognate: A words related to one in another language; a word sharing an ancestral root with another word. CF

cognitive domain: Domain in which the focus is on knowledge and information (facts and concepts), with an emphasis on the understanding and application of knowledge and information through higher-order thinking skills. The revised Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2005) identifies six levels of intellectual behaviors (remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating), with increasing complexity at each level. NS

collaborative consultation: A process for providing services to special education students in which adapted physical education specialists collaborate with regular education staff, general classroom teachers, teachers of special education, and other school professionals and/or paraprofessionals and parents to plan, implement, and evaluate interventions carried out in the adapted, regular, modified or specially designed physical education program for the purpose of ensuring each student’s success in the educational system. CF

combative activities: A group of physical activities that utilize basic combatives—pulling, pushing, stands, and guards. Some examples include wrestling, fencing, kickboxing, martial arts, and self-defense. CF

competence: Sufficient ability, skill, and knowledge to meet the demands of a particular task. CF

competency: Sufficient ability, skill, and knowledge to meet the demands of a specific task or activity. In this book, competency is defined as the ability for individuals to participate at the recreational level with skill and ability in self-selected activities. NS

competitive advantage: The advantage gained in a game situation when one team, either on offense or defense, has more players than the other team. Example: When two offensive players are against one defender, the team with two players has a competitive (offensive) advantage. If two offensive players face three defenders, the defense has a competitive advantage. NS

complex skills: Skills that combine two or more locomotor and/or manipulative fundamental movements (for example, catching and throwing or trapping and passing).

components of health-related physical fitness: Muscle strength, muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and body composition. CF

content standard: “A statement that… clearly describe(s) the content that should be taught and learned during the K-12 years, grade by grade. Content standards articulate an essential core of knowledge and skills that students should master. Standards clarify what students are expected to know and be able to do at various points in their K-12 academic career.” Available: www.intime.uni.edu/model/content/cont.html. NS

content standards: What students should know and be able to do at the end of every grade level. Content standards represent the academic content of the discipline of kinesiology. CF

content standards matrix: A holistic view of all standards across all grade levels. CF

contextual interference effect: Certain conditions (e.g., varying practice tasks) that depress performance during practice but actually produce higher levels of learning and retention (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2008, p. 258). NS

contraindicated: Is not advisable, should not be done. CF

contraindicated exercises: Exercises that are dangerous and should not be done. CF

cool-down exercises: Five to ten minutes of light to moderate physical activity. Cool-down exercises should help the body recover from exercise. This process maintains blood pressure, helps enhance venous return, and prevents blood from pooling in the muscles. CF

coordination: A skill-related component of fitness that relates to the ability to perform tasks smoothly and accurately. CF

core muscles: The abdominal, back, hip, and pelvic floor muscles. CF

critical elements: Those elements of performing a skill deemed necessary for its correct execution. Also referred to as critical features. CF

criterion-referenced assessment: Describes how well a student performs compared with a predetermined and specific standard of performance, as opposed to a norm-referenced assessment where a student’s performance is compared with a normative sample of other students. CF

criterion-referenced performance standards: A type of assessment tool that compares learners’ performance with a predetermined set of criteria or standard. Criteria are defined clearly, are delimited and are task-specific. NS

critical elements: The key components of a motor skill that can be observed, the sum of which result in movement efficiency. NS

cues: Short phrases that describe the correct technique for performing a skill. CF

academic content knowledge: The knowledge of the physical education discipline; concepts and principles related to motor development, motor learning, biomechanics, exercise physiology, sport psychology, sport sociology, sport history, and sport philosophy. The content standards for all subjects, including physical education, are based on the disciplinary knowledge of the field.

academic learning time (ALT): A unit of time during which students are engaged in learning content at an appropriate level of difficulty and in such a way that they have a chance to be successful (Rink 1998; Siedentop 1991).

accommodations: Adaptations that address the need of a student by removing the effects of the disability but not altering the performance outcome.

accumulated physical activity: The total number of minutes of physical activity performed during a 24-hour period of time. Includes minutes from short periods of activity performed during the day and the physical activity done in the “bouts” (longer periods of time).

 adapted physical education: A physical education program designed to meet the unique needs of an individual with a disability who is unable to fully participate in the general physical education program.

 adventure/outdoor activities: Physical activities centered in natural settings. Examples include orienteering, backpacking, hiking, rope activities, canoeing, cycling, skating, and rock climbing.

 aesthetic dimension: Refers to space, time, energy, and flow.

 aesthetic: The understanding and appreciation of beauty in human movement.

 aerobic activity: Exercise that can be performed for a long duration because the energy required can be provided by the burning of fuel, which normally occurs in muscle cells in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic activity may help control body weight, reduce the percentage of body fat, improve the circulatory function and respiratory functions, and reduce blood pressure. Examples include aerobic dance, cycling, jogging, power walking, in-line skating, step aerobics, kickboxing, and super circuit.

 agility: A skill-related component of fitness that describes the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body.

 alignment: Clear and direct relationship among the standards, curricula, instructional materials, instructional methods, and assessments.

anaerobic activity: Exercise of short duration that is performed at a more strenuous level, so increased respiration and heart rate cannot provide sufficient oxygen to the muscle cells. Examples of anaerobic activity include sprinting, weight training, curl-ups, gymnastics, and some team activities, such as softball and football.

assessment: The process of gathering evidence about a student’s level of achievement.

 

D

dance and rhythmic activities: Activities that focus on dance or rhythms. Dance and rhythmic activities might include but are not limited to dance forms such as creative movement, ballet, modern, ethnic or folk, cultural, hip hop, Latin, line, ballroom, social, and square. Rhythmic activities for early elementary focus on recognizing and moving to rhythm. Rhythmic manipulative activities for elementary include, but are not limited to, lummi sticks, tinikling, Chinese ribbons and ball gymnastics. NS

dehydration: The loss of water and important blood salts, such as potassium and sodium, that are essential for vital organ functions. CF

deliberate practice: Defined as “…a highly structured activity, the explicit goal of which is to improve performance. Specific tasks are invented to overcome weaknesses, and performance is carefully monitored to provide cues for ways to improve further” (Ericsson et al., 1993, p. 368). Deliberate practice is purposeful and requires concentration on the part of the learner. NS

developmental stages: Children pass through three stages before they can demonstrate the mature form for a movement or motor skill:  initial stage, elementary stage, and mature stage. CF 

differentiated instruction: Teachers vary instruction to address the needs of students and their various levels of skill or knowledge. Teachers differentiate instruction by modifying the learning environment (e.g., tiered learning activities), providing choices on equipment (e.g., increasing or decreasing the length of a racket), providing choices on the process (e.g., participate in modified game play or continue to practice), modifying practice (e.g., working alone or in a group) and facilitating self-directed activities (e.g., developing and implementing an individualized physical activity program). NS

disability: The term “child with a disability” means a child with mental retardation, a hearing impairment (including deafness), speech or language impairment, a visual impairment (including blindness), a serious emotional disturbance (referred to as “emotional disturbance”), an orthopedic impairment, autism, traumatic brain injury, an other health impairment, a specific learning disability , deaf-blindness, or multiple disabilities; and who by reason thereof, needs special education and related services. CF

distributed practice: Spreading practice time across several shorter practice sessions. CF

dual activities: Physical activities that require two participant. Examples include tennis, racquetball, and badminton. CF

dynamic environment (open skills): Skills performed in an environment that is dynamic, unpredictable and in motion. The goal for performers is to adapt movements in response to the dynamic and ever-changing environment (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2008, p. 9). Examples include invasion games such as ultimate and soccer and net/wall games such as volleyball and tennis. NS

E

educational gymnastics: Focuses on children challenging themselves to maneuver their bodies effectively against the force of gravity (Graham et al., 2013). The skills of balancing and transferring weight form the foundation of educational gymnastics. Educational gymnastics centers on challenges appropriate for each child and his or her skill level, as contrasted with Olympic gymnastics, which centers on defined stunts performed the same way by all students. NS

egg roll: A roll toward the right and then toward the left while in a tucked position. CF

elementary stage of development: The stage of skill development during which coordination and rhythmical performance improve and the performer gains greater control over their movement. The performance, however, is still somewhat awkward and lacking in fluidity. CF

embedded assessment: Assessment that occurs simultaneously with instruction. CF

emerging: Learners participate in deliberate practice tasks that will lead to skill and knowledge acquisition. Learners are in the beginning stages of acquiring motor skills and knowledge. Mastery of the skills and knowledge is emerging through deliberate practice tasks and, at this stage, learners are developing competency. NS

equipment: Refers to those items that are not yet considered expendable but are used for a period of years, such as fitness and gymnastics equipment. CF

ergogenic aids: Substances, devices, or practices that enhance an individual’s energy use, production, or recovery. CF

etiquette (NS): Expectations regarding behavior and social norms associated with specific games or activities; rules of behavior that define and provide parameters for the appropriate participation in the activity or game. CF

evaluation: Judging the quality of a performance. CF

even-beat locomotor skills: Skills performed to a regular beat (for example, walking, running, hopping, and jumping). CF

exercise: Physical activity conducted with the intention of developing physical fitness. CF

F

feedback: Information that is given to the learner about performance (internal or external); this can be knowledge of performance or knowledge of results. See also specific feedback, specific corrective feedback, and specific positive feedback. CF

fielding/striking games: Games in which teams occupy positions throughout the space (field) and the other team tries to score by batting or striking an object into open space on the field, providing enough time for the hitter to run between bases (or wickets). Examples include baseball, softball, and cricket. Strategies and tactics includeeffective placement of field players so that they can prevent scoring (defending team) and batting and striking the object with appropriate power to open spaces in the field (offensive team) (Haibach et al., 2011, p. 365; Mitchell, Oslin & Griffin, 2006, p. 21). Fielding decisions are based on the fielders’ positions and game situation, such as offensive runners’ positions, outs and score. NS

fitness activities: Activities with a focus on improvement or maintaining fitness that might include yoga, Pilates, resistance training, spinning, running, fitness walking, fitness swimming, kickboxing, cardio-kick, Zumba and exergaming. NS

FITT: Acronym that stands for frequency, intensity, time and type, which are variables that are manipulated to create an overload. NS

F.I.T.T. principles/concepts: An acronym for the exercise variables necessary for gaining and maintaining physical fitness: frequency, intensity, time, and type of physical activities. CF

flexibility: A component of health-related fitness that describes the range of motion at a joint. The ability to move joints of the body through a normal range of motion. CF

folk dance: A dance that has been developed through the traditions of culture and has been passed down from generation to generation. CF

frequency: A principle of training that establishes how often to exercise. CF

fundamental motor skills: The locomotor, nonlocomotor or stability, and manipulative skills that provide the foundation for the more complex and sports-specific movement patterns used in games and sports. NS

fundamental movement skills: Basic movements that involves the combination of movement patterns of two or more body segments. Locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills are all considered fundamental, as they form the basis of numerous forms of specialized movement and manipulative skills. CF

G

gallop: A step together in a forward direction with the same foot always leading. CF

games and sports: Includes the following game categories: invasion, net/wall, target and fielding/striking. NS

general space: Refers to the area surrounding personal space. CF

graphic organizer: A visual representation of information, with the purpose of organizing the material into a usable format. CF

grid activities: Grids are squares or rectangles in which learners participate in modified game play using predetermined tactics or skills. For example, learners could practice such skills as give and go with a partner within a grid. The passer passes (gives) to a receiver and moves to another portion of the grid (goes) to receive a return pass. The sequence of passing (give) and moving to a new space in the grid (go) would be repeated for a predetermined amount of time (e.g., 45 seconds) with partners tracking the number of completed passes. Grids can vary in many ways, including size and shape, number of players within the grid and with or without defensive pressure. NS

group dynamics: The interactions and interrelationships of people in a group. CF

H

health: Optimal well-being that contributes to the quality of life. It is more than freedom from disease and illness. Optimal health includes high-level mental, social, emotional, spiritual, and physical wellness within the limits of one’s heredity and personal abilities. CF

health-related physical fitness: Consists of those components of physical fitness that have a relationship to good health: body composition, aerobic capacity, flexibility, muscle endurance, and muscle strength. CF

hip abductors: Muscles that move the leg away from the midline of the body. CF

hip adductors: Muscles that move the leg toward the midline of the body. CF

holistic rubric or holistic rating scale: An assessment and instructional tool that assigns a level of performance based on multiple criteria and evaluates the performance as a whole. Learners must demonstrate all the identified criterion behaviors at a particular level for evaluators to determine whether the level has been achieved. Like a rubrics, holistic rubrics must define at least two levels. NS

hop: To take off and land on the same foot. CF

horizontal slice: An informal way to describe sequence. A way to use/see the content standards that represents one content standard across all grade levels. CF

hyperextension: Greater-than-normal stretching or straightening of an extended limb. CF

hyperflexion: Bending a joint beyond its normal range of motion. CF

hypokinetic: Lack of exercise or physical activity. CF

hypokinetic diseases: Diseases that develop through poor diet, lack of exercise, and a sedentary lifestyle. Examples include heart disease, high blood pressure obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis (Sidentop 2004, 168). CF

I

impact force: The slap or jolt a person sense when contact sharply changes the motion of an object, as when a ball is caught, or contact sharply changes the motion of a person, as when a jumper strikes the ground. Impact force is related to the pressure, the force per unit area (in Newtons per square meter) sustained by the part of the body in contact. For a given change of motion, the product of the force (in Newtons) required and the time over which the change occurs is a constant. To reduce the impact force when a ball is caught, one can either take longer to slow the ball, which reduces the force required and therefore the pressure; or one can increase the area of one’s body in contact with the ball (two hands are better than one). To reduce the impact force when a jumper lands, the jumper cannot lock knees but must bend them; bending the knees increases the time over which the body is brought to rest, and reduces the force the ground has to apply to the soles of the feet, and the force that is thus transmitted through the ankles, knees, and hips. CF

indicators of increased capacity: Responses of the body due to changes in the intensity of, duration of, frequency of, or time spent participating in physical activity. Indicators may consist of changes in muscle fatigue, breathing, and heart rate. CF

individual activity: Physical activities that require only one participant. Examples include weight training, yoga, archery, and jogging. CF

individual-performance activities: Might include gymnastics, figure skating, track and field, multisport events, in-line skating, wrestling, self-defense and skateboarding. NS 

individuality: A principle of training that takes into account the particular needs and abilities of the individual for whom it is designed. CF

initial stage of development: The stage of development during which the first observable and purposeful attempts at performing a skill are made. CF 

intensity:  A principle of training that establishes how hard to exercise. CF 

interpersonal communication skills: Verbal or nonverbal activities that allow the sharing of feelings, thoughts, and information with another person in a positive manner. CF

interpersonal social skills: Skills that enhance the ability to work together, including cooperation, respect, and encouragement. CF

invasion games: Games in which “teams score by moving a ball (or a projectile) into another team’s territory and either shooting into a fixed target (a goal or basket) or moving the projectile across an open-ended target (a line). To prevent scoring, one team must stop the other from bringing the ball into its territory and attempting to score” (Mitchell et al., 2006). Strategies and tactics include using teammates to open space on offense (with or without the ball) and reduce space on defense. Decisions making for offense includes when to pass, carry the ball shoot and move to create open space. Defenders must decide which players to cover and when to move to reduce space. Examples are baseball, ultimate and soccer. NS

inverted position: Balances and transfers of weight in educational gymnastics in which the head is lower than the hips. NS

J

jab step: An offensive skill executed by stepping sharply with one foot toward an opponent to cause the opponent to hesitate or go backward, thereby creating space for the offensive player. NS

jump: To take off from both feet and land on one or both feet. CF

K

knowledge of performance: Feedback based on the process and quality of the movement. The feedback is based on movement efficiency, timing and rhythm of the movement pattern. Feedback is provided on specific critical elements of the movement (Shmidt & Wrisberg, 2008, p. 289). NS

knowledge of results: Feedback based on the outcome (product) of the movement that occurs after the action is completed (e.g., basket made or missed). Results indicate the degree of the success of the movement based on the environmental goal of the movement (Shmidt & Wrisberg, 2008, p.286). NS

L

large-muscle groups: Muscles that work together and have a large mass relative to other muscle groups in the body. Examples of large-muscle groups are the muscles in the arms, back, and legs. CF

lead-up game: A game that involves one or more skills or strategies of a sport. CF

leap: A light transfer of weight from one foot to the other foot. To spring through the air from one point to another. CF

level: The position of the body or an apparatus relative to the floor. CF

level 1 outcomes: high school-level outcomes reflecting the minimum knowledge and skills that students must acquire and gain by graduation to be college-or-career-ready. NS

level 2 outcomes: High school-level outcomes that build on level 1 competencies by augmenting knowledge and skills considered desirable for college or career readiness. NS

lifetime activities: Activities that are suitable for participation across the life span and that one can undertake alone or with a partner as opposed to a team. For the purpose of this book, lifetime activities include the categories of outdoor pursuits, selected individual-performance activities, aquatics and net/wall and other games. NS

line dance: A dance in which individuals line up without partners and follow a choreographed pattern of steps, usually performed to country music. CF

locomotor skills: Basic motor skills involving a change of position of the feet and/or a change of direction of the body. Locomotor skills include walking, running, hopping, skipping, jumping, leaping, sliding, and galloping. CF

locomotor skills: Skills that “consist of a group of fundamental motor skills that allow individuals to navigate through space or move their body from one point to another.” These include “running, galloping, hopping, skipping, jumping, leaping and sliding” (Gallahue et al., 2012, p. 223). NS

log roll: A side roll in which the performer is in an extended position. CF

long-handled implement: A piece of equipment used in performing motor skills. The long handle positions the hand some distance away from the surface of the implement that comes in contact with the ball. Some examples include a hockey stick, softball bat, tennis racquet, and lacrosse stick. CF 

low organized games: Activities that have a few simple rules that require little or no equipment. CF

M

manipulative movements: Basic motor skills involving handling an object. Examples include throwing, catching, kicking, trapping, rolling, dribbling, striking, and volleying. CF

manipulative skills: Skills that require controlling or manipulating objects, such as kicking, striking, throwing, catching and dribbling. NS

massed practice: The continuous practice of a skill for a long period of time. CF

mature form: The critical elements of a skill, performed in a smooth and continuous motion. CF

mature pattern: Executing with efficiency the critical elements of the motor skills pattern in authentic environments. NS

mature stage: The stage of development characterized by the integration of all component parts of a pattern of movement into a well-coordinated, technically correct form. CF

maturing: Demonstrating the critical elements of the motor skills and knowledge components of the grade-level outcomes, which will continue to be refined with practice. As the environmental context varies, a maturing pattern might fluctuate, reflecting more maturity in familiar contexts and less maturity in unfamiliar (new) contexts. NS 

moderate physical activity: Moderate-intensity physical activity generally requires sustained rhythmic movements and refers to a level of effort a healthy individual might expend for a while, for example, walking briskly, dancing, swimming, or bicycling on a level terrain. A person should feel some exertion but should be able to carry on a conversation comfortably during the activity. CF

modification: Adaptations that address the needs of the student by fundamentally altering the performance outcome. CF

modified/lead-up game: Active games that involve the use of two or more of the sport skills, rules, or procedures used in playing the official sport. CF

modified games: Small-sided games in which the rules have been modified to emphasize the skills taught in class (e.g., creating a penalty for dribbling to emphasize students to pass rather than dribble). NS

motor development: The study of change in movement behaviors and motor skills across the life span. CF

motor learning: The study of change in a person’s ability to perform a motor skill. CF

motor patterns: The six fundamental motor skills are running, jumping and landing, kicking, throwing, catching and striking. These skills provide the foundation for more complex and sports-specific movement patterns used in games and sports. NS

motor skills: A skill that requires voluntary body and/or limb movement to achieve its goal. A skill where the primary determinant of its success is the movement component itself. Physical activity that is directed toward a specific function or goal. The term may be used to refer to one discrete skill (e.g., throwing) or a more general ability to perform physical skills competently (e.g., as in “The student has the motor skill needed to perform that sport”) (NASPE 2004). CF

movement concepts: The ideas used to modify or enrich the range and effectiveness of the skills employed. They involve learning how, where and with what the body moves. CF

movement concepts: The application of knowledge and concepts related to skillful performance of movement and fitness activities, such as spatial awareness, effort, tactics, strategies and principles related to movement efficiency and health-enhancing fitness. NS

movement patterns: An organized series of related movements. CF

multicultural dance: A dance that originated form cultural or ethnic traditions. Typically refers to an instructional unit that includes dance that originated from two or more cultural groups. CF

muscle endurance: The ability to contract the muscles many times without tiring or the ability to hold one contraction for an extended period. CF

muscle strength: The ability of a muscle to exert force against a resistance one time. Strength is measured as the amount of force a muscle can produce. CF

N

net/wall games: Games in which “teams or individual players score by hitting a ball into a court space with sufficient accuracy and power so that opponents cannot hit it back before it bounces once (as in badminton or volleyball) or twice (as in tennis or racquetball) (Mitchell et al., 2006, p. 21). Opponents generally are separated by a net, but in some cases (squash, racquetball), they share a court and the walls are in play. Offensive strategies and tactics are based on hitting to an open space or pulling the opponent out of position. Defensive strategies are reducing open space by good court position and anticipating the opponent’s shot. NS

nondynamic environment (closed skills): Skills performed in a nondynamic environment that is constant, predictable or stationary. The goal for performers is to produce movements or skills that are consistent and accurate because the environmental context is nondynamic , stable and unchanging (Shmidt & Wrisberg, 2008, p. 9). Examples include performance sports such as gymnastics or diving and target games such as darts archery. NS

nonlocomotor movements: Movements of the body performed for a relatively stable base of support. Examples include bending, stretching, twisting, turning, leaning, swaying, and swinging. CF

nonlocomotor or stability skills: “Any movement that places a premium on gaining and maintaining one’s equilibrium in relation to the force of gravity” (Gallahue et al., 2012, p. 49). Examples include axial movements (another term sometimes used for nonlocomotor movements) as well as inverted and rolling body postures. NS

norm-referenced: A type of assessment tool that compares learners’ performance with other similar learners’ performances. Learners’ relative standing (rank) is based on their performance in comparison with other similar learners in the same age group. NS

O

open skills: Motor skills that are performed in a changing environment. CF

overload: A principle of training that establishes a minimum threshold and requires one to exceed that threshold to benefit from the chosen physical activity. CF

outcomes: Statements that specify what learners will know or be able to do as a result of a learning activity. NS

outdoor pursuits: Activities that include recreational boating (e.g., kayaking, canoeing, sailing, rowing); hiking; backpacking; fishing; orienteering or geocaching; ice skating; skateboarding; snow or water skiing; snowboarding; snowshoeing; surfing; bouldering, traversing or climbing; mountain biking; adventure activities; and ropes courses. Selection of activities is dependent on the environmental opportunities within the geographical region. NS

overload principle: Progressively placing greater stress or demands on the body during exercise to cause the body to adapt (become more fit). This is accomplished by manipulating the frequency, intensity, time (duration) and type (FITT) of activity. NS

P

perceived exertion index: A way of rating how hard one feels the body is working during physical activity. It is base on physical sensations experienced, including increased heart rate, increased respiration or breathing rate, increased sweating, and muscle fatigue. CF

performance standard: Answers the question “How good is good enough?” CF

personal space: Space that extends outward to the farthest reach of all body parts. CF

physical activity: Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and that substantially increases energy expenditure, including exercise, sport, dance, and other movement forms. CF 

physical education: The sequential educational program that teaches students to:

  • Understand and participate in regular physical activity that assists in developing and maintaining physical fitness throughout their lifetimes.
  • Understand and improve their motor skills.
  • Enjoy using their skills and knowledge to establish a healthy lifestyle.
  • Understand how their bodies work. CF

physical fitness: A positive state of well-being with a low risk of premature health problems and with the energy to participate in a variety of physical activities. It is influenced by regular, vigorous physical activity, genetic makeup, and nutritional adequacy. CF 

pickleball: A mini-tennis game played by two or four people on a badminton-sized court using wooden paddle racquets and a plastic baseball with holes. CF 

player up or player down: A game situation in which one team has one more (e.g., 2v1) or one fewer (e.g., 1v2) player than the other team. NS

plyometric exercise: A muscular activity that involves an eccentric contraction (muscle is lengthened) of a muscle, followed immediately by a concentric contraction (muscle is shortened) of the same muscle. Plyometric exercises are often used to increase power. CF 

power: A skill-related component of fitness that relates to the rate at which one can perform work. CF 

principle of individual difference: Each individual is different and will require a somewhat unique fitness plan. CF 

principle of overload: Increasing the work and stress that are normally experienced will improve one’s fitness. CF

principle of progression: A progressive increase in the level of exercise is more effective. CF

principle of regularity: Exercise must be performed on an ongoing basis to be effective. CF

principle of specificity: Specific exercises must be performed to improve each component of health-related fitness. CF

principles of training/principles of exercise: Principles to follow in planning an exercise program to effect physiological changes in the human body related to health and performance: individual differences, overload, progression, regularity, and specificity. CF

progression: A principle of training that establishes increases in the amount and intensity of physical activity needed to provide improvement over periods of time. CF 

proprioception: The ability to sense the position, location, and orientation of the body. CF

psychomotor domain: Domain in which focus is on motor skills. “Includes physical movement, coordination and the use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures or techniques in execution” (Simpson, 1972). NS

Q

 

R

rating of perceived exertion (RPE): The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), or Borg Scale, is a measure form 6 to 20 that a person can use to describe how hard one feels the body is working. Practitioners generally agree that moderate physical activity has a perceived exertion rating of 12 to 14 on the Borg Scale. CF http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/strengthening/a/030904.htm

rating scale: An assessment and instructional tool that is similar to a checklist but provides added information on the extent to which criterion behaviors are met. That is accomplished by a gradation of criteria across levels. Gradation of performance can be differentiated by the number of times the behavior occurs (frequency) or by descriptions of performance at each level (quality). NS

reaction time: A component of skill-related fitness that describes the interval of time from a suddenly presented stimulus until the beginning of the response. CF

rebound principles: Newton’s Third Law: An object, when struck, will rebound in the opposite direction with the same amount of force with which it was hit. CF

receiving (NS): The skill of collecting a pass from a teammate with the hands, feet or body. CF

recovery rate: The time necessary for an exercise-induced elevated heart rate to return to a normal resting heart rate. CF

regularity: A principle of training that establishes exercise on a regular schedule. A pattern of physical activity is regular if activities as performed most days od the week, preferably daily; if moderate-intensity activities are performed five or more days of the week; or if vigorous-intensity activities are performed three or more days of the week. CF

relationship: The position of the body in relation to the floor, apparatus, or other performers. CF

reliable assessment: An assessment for which the results are consistent when administered to the same individual on different occasions. CF

resistance principle: The principle that the use of an implement, a device, or the body weight as a resistance can enhance some physical characteristic, such as strength or muscular endurance. CF

rhythmic skills: Skills that develop an understanding of and a feeling for the elements of rhythm. Examples of physical activities that allow students to express themselves rhythmically include creative movement, folk dance, square dance, and interpretive dance. CF

rubric: An assessment and instructional tool that identifies criterion behaviors for at least two levels of performance. Each level of the rubric identifies and describes criterion behaviors that contain essential elements of the tasks along a range or continuum of performance expectations. NS

S

short-handled implement: A piece of equipment used in performing motor skills. The short handle allows the hand to be close to the surface of the implement that comes in contact with the ball. Some examples include a racquetball racket, a paddle used in paddle games, and a modified lacrosse stick. CF

simple skills: Skills that have only one or two parts (for example, running or skipping). CF

skill-related physical fitness: Those components of physical fitness that relate to an enhanced performance in sports: agility, balance, coordination, power, speed, and reaction time. CF

skip: A step-hop on one foot and then the other. CF 

slide: A step-together-step in a sideward direction with the same foot always leading. CF

small-sided games: Organized games in which the number of players involved is reduced from the conventional competitive version of the sport (e.g., 2v2 basketball, 3v3 volleyball, 6v6 lacrosse). NS

small-sided practice tasks: Small-sided games or deliberate tasks designed to practice particular skills or tasks. NS

special education: “Special education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals, and institutions, and in other settings; and instruction in physical education” (U.S. Department of Education 2006. Assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities program and preschool grants for children with disabilities; final rules. Federal Register, 71, 34 CFR Parts 300 and 301). CF

specialized manipulative skills: Fundamental skills that have been adapted to the special requirements of a particular sport, game, or physical activity (e.g., volleyball serve, tennis forearm stroke, badminton clear, basketball layup, soccer trap, softball pitch, golf swing). CF

specialized movement skills: Fundamental skills that have been adapted to the special requirements of a particular sport, game, or physical activity (e.g., grapevine step, high jump, long jump, hurdles). CF

specific corrective feedback: Feedback that provides the performer with specific recommendations on how to perform the skill correctly (“You need to step forward on your left foot). CF

specific feedback: Feedback that provides the performer with specific recommendations on how to perform the skill correctly. CF

specific positive feedback: Feedback that is positive (“Good job!”) and specific (“You stepped forward on the left foot”). CF

specificity: A principle of related training that establishes a particular kind of activity for each component of physical fitness. CF

speed: A skill-related fitness component relating to performing a movement in a short period of time. CF

squat: A lower body exercise performed by bending the knees (no lower than a 90-degree angle), lowering the torso, and then rising to a standing position. CF

stability movements: Stability reflects balance and equilibrium, which are important components in performing many motor skills. Stability movements include those that are vital for the body to maintain balance while moving, Examples include moving the arms while walking or running and lowering one’s center of gravity when stopping quickly. CF

stages of learning: Individuals pass through three stages to become proficient at a motor skill (Fitts and Posner 1967):

  • Stage 1 (verbal-cognitive stage): initial stage of learning, in which verbal and cognitive processes predominate.
  • Stage 2 (associative or motor stage): stage of learning in which motor programs are developed and the performance becomes increasingly consistent.
  • Stage 3 (autonomous stage): an advanced stage of learning in which the learner develops automaticity in action and information processing. CF

static: A stationary condition. For example, static stretching or static balance. CF

station teaching: The creation of discrete learning areas where students perform a movement at a station for a designated period of time and then move on to the next station. CF

strategies: Decisions made by individuals or a team about the overall play of the game. CF

striking: “A ballistic, propulsion skill… with several forms, such as sidearm, underarm or overarm, one-handed and two-handed” (Gallahue et al., 2012, p. 214). Common examples include batting, hitting with a racket and serving a volleyball. NS

striking pattern: A fundamental motor skill in which an object is hit with or without an implement. CF

student discipline plan: Guides student behavior, outlines consequences for inappropriate behavior, and sets goals for student improvement in behavior. CF

students with special needs: Refers to students who are marginalized in physical education, students whose cultural and religious practices require special consideration, English learners, students with long-term and short-term medical needs, at-risk learners, advanced learners, and students with disabilities. CF

stunts: Activities that require balance, agility, coordination, weight transfer, and strength. Typically referred to as activities that lead up to tumbling and gymnastics. CF

supplies: Refers to those materials that are expendable and that need to be replaced at frequent intervals, usually annually, such as basketballs and playground balls. CF

T

tactics: Individual movement of players or teams to accomplish an immediate goal or accommodate a situation. Tactics take place within the game as an ongoing part of game play and include decisions an individual makes about when, why, and how to respond to a particular situation. CF

target games: Games in which “players score by throwing or striking an object to a target” (Mitchell et al., 2006, p. 21). Accuracy is a primary focus of the activity, and competitors share no physical contact (Haibach et al., 2011, p. 369). Target games are considered opposed (e.g., croquet, shuffleboard, bocce) because opponents may block or hit another player’s ball to a less-desirable position. Other target games are considered unopposed (e.g., golf, bowling) because opponents may not interfere with a shot (Mitchell et al., 2006, p. 21). Strategies or tactics are based on movement accuracy and consistency. NS

target heart-rate zone: A safe range of activity intensity that can be used to enhance the level of aerobic capacity. CF

technology: Software, websites, devices and applications used in a physical education setting to enhance teaching and learning. NS

time: A principle of training that establishes the amount of time for each exercise period. CF

transitional strategy: Game strategy that occurs during the change of ball possession. It refers to the process or plan used when going from offense to defense or defense to offense. CF

travel: Movement of the body from one point to another. CF

triceps push-ups: A reverse push-up performed with the belly up and hands on the floor or on a chair or bench (younger students) or a push-up performed with hands parallel to the chest and spaced shoulder-width apart, with elbows tight to the body (older students). A push-up the isolates the triceps. CF 

tripod: A balanced position in which the hands and head are on a floor mat, forming a triangular base of support, and bent knees rest on the elbows. CF

trunk lift: An exercise performed while lying facedown with hands at sides and toes pointed. The upper body is lifted off the floor slowly keeping the head straight. The head is raised no more than 12 inches off the ground. CF 

type: A principle of training that establishes the specific activity to use or the muscles to target during an exercise period. CF

U

uneven-beat locomotor skill: Skills performed to an uneven beat. Examples include galloping, sliding, and skipping. CF

unpacking a content standard: The process of revealing the content and prerequisite skills needed to learn a content standard. Unpacking reveals the level of performance that is necessary. The verbs in the content standards assist teachers in developing appropriate assessments. Unpacking a standard is similar to backward planning and deconstructing the standards. CF

Ultimate: A soccer/football-type game played by teams of seven using a flying disc. The goal is to pass the disc to a player in the opposing end zone. CF

V

valid assessment: An assessment that measures what it is intended to measure. CF

variable: Something that can change. CF

vertical slice: An informal way to describe scope. A way to use or see the content standards that represent all content standards across one grade level. CF

vigorous physical activity: Vigorous-intensity physical activity generally requires sustained, rhythmic movements and refers to a level of effort a healthy individual might expend fro a while, for example, jogging, participating in high-impact aerobic dancing, swimming continuous laps, or bicycling uphill. Vigorous-intensity physical activity may be intense enough to result in a significant increase in heart and respiration rate. CF

volley: To strike a ball upward. CF

volley: To strike or give impetus to an object (volley-birds, foot bags, bamboo balls, volleyballs) by using a variety of body parts (e.g., hands, arms, head, knees) (Graham et al., 2013). NS

W

warm-up exercises: Low-intensity exercises that prepare the muscular/skeletal system and heart and lungs (cardiorespiratory system) for high-intensity physical activity. CF

weight-bearing activities: Any activity in which one’s feet and legs carry one’s own weight. Examples include walking, running, tennis, and aerobic dancing. CF

X

 

Y

 

Z

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